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Austrian Navy

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Austrian Navy

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Melasse, Honig, Karamell, Cacao und Nüsse. Indeed, in the years beforethe Navy was largely considered to be a "local affair of Venice". He lacked the technical skills to develop this idea so he contacted Robert Whitehead, Ziehung Glücksrakete 2021 engineer in Trieste. The divisional headquarters was at Baden bei Wien near Vienna; Ninja Monkey 3rd, 4th, and 9th Bigades were based in separate locations, also in the northeast of Kostenlos Traden country. The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of aimed to calm political dissatisfaction by creating the Dual Monarchyin which the Emperor of Austria was also the King of Hungary.

During his time in the Navy, Friedrich introduced many modernizing reforms, aiming to make the Austrian Navy less "Venetian" in character and more "Austrian".

Friedrich and the Austrian Navy had their first major military encounter during the Oriental Crisis of In , the Ottomans attempted to reclaim these territories but after a decisive defeat at the Battle of Nezib , the Ottoman Empire appeared on the verge of collapse.

The Convention offered Muhammad Ali hereditary rule of Egypt while nominally remaining part of the Ottoman Empire if he withdrew from most of Syria.

Muhammad Ali hesitated to accept the offer however and in September the European powers moved to engage Muhammad Ali's forces.

On 26 September, Friedrich, commanding the Austrian frigate Guerriera , bombarded the port of Sidon with British support. The Austrians and British landed in the city and stormed its coastal fortifications, capturing it on 28 September.

After capturing Sidon, Austria's naval squadron sailed on to Acre which bombarded the city in November, destroying its coastal fortifications and silencing the city's guns.

During the storming of the city, Friedrich personally led the Austro-British landing party and hoisted the Ottoman, British, and Austrian flags over the Acre's citadel upon its capture.

In , Archduke Friedrich was promoted to the rank of Vice-Admiral and become Commander-in-Chief of the Navy at the age of 23, but his tenure as the head of the Austrian Navy ended just three years after his appointment when he died in Venice at the age of Across the Austrian Empire, nationalist sentiments among Austria's various ethnic groups led to the revolutions in Austria to take several different forms.

Liberal sentiments prevailed extensively among the German Austrians, which were further complicated by the simultaneous events in the German states.

The Hungarians within the Empire largely sought to establish their own independent kingdom or republic, which resulted in a revolution in Hungary.

Italians within the Austrian Empire likewise sought to unify with the other Italian-speaking states of the Italian Peninsula to form a "Kingdom of Italy".

The revolution in Vienna sparked anti-Habsburg riots in Milan and Venice. Field Marshal Joseph Radetzky was unable to defeat the Venetian and Milanese insurgents in Lombardy-Venetia, and had to order his forces to evacuate western Italy, pulling his forces back to a chain of defensive fortresses between Milan and Venice known as the Quadrilatero.

With Vienna itself in the middle of an uprising against the Habsburg Monarchy, the Austrian Empire appeared on the brink of collapse.

Venice was at the time one of Austria's largest and most important ports, and the revolution which began there nearly led to the disintegration of the Austrian Navy.

The Austrian commander of the Venetian Naval Yard was beaten to death by his own men, while the head of the city's Marine Guard was unable to provide any aid to suppress the uprising as most of the men under his command deserted.

Vice-Admiral Anton von Martini, Commander-in-Chief of the Navy, attempted to put an end to the rebellion but was betrayed by his officers, the majority of whom were Venetians, and subsequently captured and held prisoner.

Fearing mutinies, Austrian officers ultimately relieved of these Italian sailors of their duty and permitted them to return home.

While this action left the Navy drastically undermanned, it prevented any wide-scale disintegration within the Navy which the Austrian Army had repeatedly suffered from in Italy.

The loss of so many Italian crew members and officers meant that the remaining ships which did not fall into rebel hands in Venice were lacking many crews.

Out of roughly 5, men who were members of the Austrian Navy prior to the revolution, only 72 officers and sailors remained.

Further complicating matters for the Austrian Navy was the loss of Venice's naval dockyards, warehouses, its arsenal, as well as three corvettes and several smaller vessels to the Venetian rebels.

Martini's capture left the Navy without a commander for the fifth time in as many months. Gyulai recalled every Austrian ship in the Mediterranean, the Adriatic, and in the Levant.

Due to Trieste's close location to the parts of Italy revolting against Austrian rule at the time, Gyulai also chose the small port of Pola as the new base for the Austrian Navy.

This marked the first time the city had been used as an Austrian naval base, and from onwards the city continued to serve as a base for Austrian warships until the end of World War I.

Meanwhile, fortunes continued to fade for the Austrians. The Papal States and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies both joined the war on the side of Sardinia, [39] [40] the later sending a naval force into the Adriatic in cooperation with Sardinia to help size Venice.

This Italian fleet consisted of five frigates and several smaller vessels acquired by the Italian nationalists in Venice.

Against this force, the Austrian Navy counted three frigates of 44 to 50 guns, two corvettes of 18 and 20 guns, eight brigs of six to 16 guns, 34 gunboats with three guns each, and two steamers of two guns.

Despite its relatively large size for navies in the Adriatic, the Austrian Navy lacked experience against the combined Italian forces and Gyulai decided to withdraw his ships to Pola.

The Austrian fleet was too small to go on the offensive against the Italians, while the Italian naval commander, Rear Admiral Giovanbattista Albini , was under orders not to attack the port of Trieste as its location within the German Confederation may draw in other powers in central Europe against Sardinia.

Early experimentation on the use of a self-propelled explosive device—forerunner to the torpedo—to attack the Italian ships also failure due to the technological constraints of the time.

Additional proposals to break the Italian fleet by using fire ships was rejected as an "inhumane" way of fighting.

The stalemate in the Adriatic came to an end as the Papal States and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies pulled out of the war.

While Martini unsuccessfully lobbied for the purchase of new steam ships to re-establish a blockade of Venice, Sardinia resumed the war with Austria on 12 March This led to the disastrous Sardinian defeat at the Battle of Novara ten days later.

The Revolutions of marked a turning point in the history of the Austrian Navy. Up until that time, the Navy had been dominated by the Italian language, customs, and traditions.

Prior to the revolution, the Austrian Navy was mostly made up of Italian crew members, the Italian language was the primary language, and even Italian ship names were used over German ones, such as Lipsia rather than Leipzig.

Indeed, in the years before , the Navy was largely considered to be a "local affair of Venice". After retaking Venice, the Austrians acquired several warships which were under construction or already seaworthy.

Most of these ships were added to the strength of the Austrian Navy, increasing the size and strength of the Navy considerably by the year Here the Austrian screw-driven gunboat Kerka crew: was launched in in service until Dahlerup introduced many personal reforms, such as reorganizing the command structure of the Navy, establishing new service regulations, and setting up a school for naval officers.

He also began the process of replacing Italian with German as the spoken de facto language of the Austrian Navy.

However, Dahlerup's command style clashed heavily with the prevailing culture within the Austrian Navy and he resigned after just over two years.

At the age of 22, Ferdinand Max became the youngest Oberkommandant in the history of the Austrian Navy, being a year younger than when Archduke Friedrich of Austria assumed command of the navy ten years earlier.

Despite his age, the fact that he had only been in the Navy for four years, and his lack of experience in battle or command on the high seas, Ferdinand Max proved to be among the most effective and successful commanders of the Austrian Navy in history.

He was described by Lawrence Sondhaus in his book The Habsburg Empire and the Sea: Austrian Naval Policy, — as "the most gifted leader the navy had ever had, or ever would have".

He used his prestige, youthful enthusiasm, and love of the Service to promote it in every way possible.

Ferdinand Max worked hard to separate the Austrian Navy from its dependence upon the Austrian Army, which had nominal control over its affairs.

Under this new system, Ferdinand Max continued to be the Oberkommandant , but he was no longer responsible for the political management of the fleet.

Ferdinand Max immediately went to work expanding the Austrian Navy. Fears of over-dependence upon foreign shipyards to supply Austrian warships enabled him to convince his brother to authorize the construction of a new drydock at Pola , and the expansion of existing shipyards in Trieste.

Furthermore, Ferdinand Max initiated an ambitious construction program in the ports of Pola, Trieste, and Venice, the largest the Adriatic had seen since the Napoleonic Wars.

While it had been used as a base for the Navy during the Revolutions of , the small dockyards and port facilities, coupled with surrounding swampland had hindered its development.

In addition to Pola's new drydock, Ferdinand Max had the swamps drained and constructed a new arsenal for the city. By , a screw-powered ship-of-the-line was under construction in Pola after failed bids to construct the ship with British and American shipbuilding firms, [52] while two screw-frigates and two screw-corvettes were being built in Trieste and Venice respectively.

Ferdinand Max followed up on this progress however by purchasing the steam frigate Radetzky from the United Kingdom in Her design was used for the construction of future ships of the Navy, and marked the beginning of Austria's modern shipbuilding industry.

From onward, a majority of Austria's ships were constructed by domestic shipyards. She was commissioned into the Austrian Navy in after being constructed at the newly built Pola Navy Yard between and As a result of these construction projects, the Austrian Navy grew to its largest size since the War of Austrian Succession over years prior.

Despite these efforts however, the Navy was still considerably smaller than its French, British, or Sardinian counterparts.

Indeed, the French Navy's technological and numerical edge proved to be decisive in driving the Austrian Navy to port shortly after the outbreak of the Second War of Italian Independence.

In response to Austria's quick defeat during the Second War of Italian Independence, Ferdinand Max proposed an even larger naval construction program than the one he had initiated upon his appointment as Oberkommandant.

This fleet would be large enough not only to show the Austrian flag around the world, but also to protect its merchant marine as well as thwart any Adriatic ambitions from the growing Kingdom of Sardinia.

However, constitutional reforms enacted in Austria after the defeat, as well as the recent introduction of ironclads into the navies of the world, made the proposal more expensive than he had initially intended.

He quickly toppled the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies , the largest state in the region in a matter of months. With the unification of Italy , the various navies of the former Italian states were merged into a single military force, named the Regia Marina Royal Navy.

Following up on these ships, Italy launched a substantial program to bolster the strength of the Regia Marina.

The Italians believed that building a strong navy would play a crucial role in making the recently unified kingdom a Great Power. This arms race between the two nations continued for the rest of Ferdinand Max's tenure as Oberkommandant.

The journey lasted 2 years and 3 months and was accomplished under the command of Kommodore Bernhard von Wüllerstorf-Urbair , with officers and crew, and 7 scientists aboard.

The fantastic Versurchsgleitsboote, first practical military hovercraft, armed with torpedoes and much faster than the Italian MAS.

At the heart of this crossing of influences in the mediterranean that saw Italians, Austro-Hungarians, Russians, British, French and even German rival fleets, seeing an alliance between Italy and former enemies, the houses of Habsburg and Germany, in response to the alliance made since between France, England and Russia.

This alliance however upset a section of the Austrian Staff led by its chief, General Von Hötzendorf, which predicted a new war with their old enemy.

Naval expenditure was relatively low and it had to do with often obsolete ships. This budget represented Part of the explanation can be found in the systematic opposition of Hungary in new spending to the Navy even though it was considered by the Austrians as important power status.

Poster of the Austro-Hungarian Fleet. Despite of this, in , the new Chief of Staff of the Navy, Admiral Spaun, presented a shipbuilding plan to counter the rise of the Italian navy.

He was forced by the imperial defense minister to half its budget. He resigned and was replaced by Vice Admiral Von Montecuccoli, more conciliatory.

Therefore, no whatsoever program was launched before The plan however incorporated new ships, mostly dreadnoughts which formed the active core of the renewed Austro-Hungarian Navy during the Great War.

The second part of the program was authorized under his successor in , Admiral Haus, but unfortunately interrupted because of the outbreak of the conflict.

The only ships launched afterwards were destroyers to replace losses. They built but also modernized most of the units after The few ships built in which not has been demolished served in various capacities in the fleet in Thus, the Herzerzog Ferdinand Max, heroic veteran of the Battle of Lissa, long served as a coastguard, and despite being struck off the lists in , it was still registered active in Pola.

The Kronprinzessin Erzerzogin Stefanie and Konprinz Herzerzog Rudolf and were used as school pontoons and opportunely resumed service as coastguard ironclads in SMS Radetzky.

Overall because of too modest budgets and the lack of ambitious plans, the Austro-Hungarian fleet was aging and in consisted of virtually obsolete ships.

The most recent dated back to The new ships initiated by the plan were the pre-dreadnoughts Radetzky of the class, Tegetthoff class, Admiral Spaun cruiser class, Tatra class destroyers and Torpedo Boats of the TB74 and 82 classes.

W orld War 1 at Sea. The initially small Austrian submarine force was unable to play a role outside the Adriatic, and by early the Germans were sending U-boats into the Mediterranean, in part to attack the Allied fleet off the Dardanelles.

As Italy had declared war on Austro-Hungary but not Germany, the German boats operated under the Austrian ensign and were temporarily commissioned into the Austrian Navy.

Although the Austrian submarine fleet did not grow to large numbers it had an impressive record - damaging French dreadnought 'Jean Bart', and sinking:.

Submarines - French 'Circe', Italian 'Nereide'. Key to Austrian titles. August Strength. Wartime additions. Key to Main Characteristics.

Tonnage - standard displacement; Speed - designed speed at standard displacement, rarely attained in service; Main armament - sometimes changed as the war progressed; secondary armament usually changed; Complement - normal peace time.

Exceeded in war with consequent reduction in living space and higher battle casualties; Year - year or years class completed and normally entered service.

Only includes ships completed up to war's end; Loss Positions - estimated from location unless available from reliable sources; Casualties - totals of men lost, or survivors plus saved, will often exceed peacetime complements.

Austrian torpedo and gun calibres in inches:. Torpedoes: Guns: August Strength 3. In August , the three completed 'Tegetthof' dreadnoughts and three 'Radetzky' pre-Dreadnoughts formed the First Battle Squadron, spending most of the war as a fleet-in-being.

With the fall of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the state of Yugoslavia was formed by the southern Slavs and declared on the side of the Allies.

Apparently ignoring the new political situation, the Italians went ahead with a planned attack on Pola. Early in the morning of the 1st November and with few defensive precautions now being taken, two Italian frogmen, Maj of Naval Engineers Raffaele Rossetti and Doctor Lt Raffaele Paolucci, slipped into the naval base and attached mines to the dreadnought and liner 'Wien'.

Both ships sank, 'Viribus Unitis' capsizing and going down around dawn. The nine officer ranks from officer candidate through general correspond to grades I through IX of the civil service system.

The highest grade, IX, may be occupied by a section chief undersecretary , a career ambassador, or a three-star general. A grade VIII position may be held by a departmental counselor, a career minister, or a brigadier general.

Salary levels are the same for both civil and military personnel in the equivalent grades, although various allowances may be added, such as flight pay or hazardous-duty pay.

The system of promotion in the Austrian military, which offers no incentive for early retirement, means that the military is top-heavy with senior officers.

The New Army Structure, which is intended to result in many fewer active-duty and reserve commands, compounds the difficulty.

Personnel changes can be implemented only gradually, as the surplus of officers shrinks by attrition. In , the army had four officers of general rank, fifty-nine at the rank of brigadier general one star , colonels, and lieutenant colonels.

The education of career officers is conducted at the Maria Theresia Military Academy at Wiener Neustadt, forty-five kilometres south of Vienna, which was founded in Young men who have completed their university entrance requirements are eligible to compete for places.

The three-year course graduated students in At the National Defence Academy in Vienna, which has a curriculum comparable to those of the National Defence University and the Army War College in the United States, operational and troop commanders of field-grade rank study for three years in preparation for general staff and command positions.

Troop schools provide continuous specialized courses for officers and NCOs in artillery, air defence, armour, combat engineering, communications, and the like.

Women have been accepted for service in the Austrian armed forces since All service branches are open for female volunteers. In a public opinion survey in , about 66 percent of those polled approved of opening the military to voluntary service by women; only nine percent favoured obligatory service.

Since the new service uniform with a six colour camouflage pattern is issued, but the old service uniform in olive is still widespread and will be taken out of service very slowly.

The air force uniform is identical, with the addition of wings worn on the right jacket breast—gold for officers and silver for enlisted personnel.

Branches of service are identified by beret colours: scarlet for the honour Guard; green for infantry; black for armour; cherry for airborne; and dark blue for quartermaster.

Insignia of rank are worn on the jacket lapel of the dress uniform silver stars on a green or gold shield and on the epaulets of the field uniform white, silver or gold stars on an olive drab field.

The Austrian military has a wide variety of equipment. Recently, Austria has spent considerable amounts of money modernizing its military arsenal.

Leopard 2 main battle tanks, Ulan and Pandur infantry fighting vehicles , C Hercules transport planes, S Black Hawk utility helicopters, and Eurofighter Typhoon multi-purpose combat aircraft have been purchased, along with new helicopters to replace the inadequate ones used after the Galtür Avalanche.

Of the eight enlisted ranks, only a sergeant Wachtmeister or above is considered an NCO. There are two warrant officer ranks—Offiziersstellvertreter and Vizeleutnant.

The lowest commissioned rank of officer candidate Fähnrich —is held by cadets at the military academy and by reserve officers in training for the rank second lieutenant.

To maintain conformity with grade levels in the civil service, there are only two ranks of general in the personnel system—brigadier general one star and general lieutenant three stars.

However, the ranks of major general two stars and full general equivalent to four stars are accorded to officers holding particular military commands.

Cultural property protection has been firmly anchored in the Austrian Armed Forces since There are national and international assignments and numerous collaborations, including with United Nations peacekeeping.

During training as well as at the Theresian Military Academy , intensive reference is made to the protection of cultural property and the international experience of Blue Shield International.

Some of the traditions of the old Austro-Hungarian Army continue to be carried on in Bundesheer. Also nearly every other regiment of the Bundesheer carries on traditions of the famous Austro-Hungarian regiments like "Kaiserjäger", "Rainer", etc.

In the patrol boat RPC Oberst Brecht was commissioned as a naval squadron of the Army to patrol the Danube in protection of the country's neutrality.

The larger vessel RPB Niederösterreich was also commissioned 12 years later. The squadron comprised two officers and thirty men.

The company which built the vessels closed in With the fall of Communism and the inability to maintain and repair the vessels, the squadron was disbanded in Austria took first place in the Strong Europe Tank Challenge as six nations and partner nations battled it out in Grafenwoehr, Germany.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Combined military forces of the Republic of Austria. Main article: Military history of Austria.

See also: Structure of the Austrian Armed Forces in Austrian Gebirgsjäger in Main article: Structure of the Austrian Armed Forces.

Main article: Austrian Air Force. In , a railroad from Vienna to Trieste was completed, which spurred regional commercial activity and rejuvenated foreign trade.

Maritime activity fueled the creation of jobs and economic well-being, while naval construction spurred the economies of Istria and Trieste and gave rise to popularity in the Parliament.

Advances in technology had rendered the previous generation of Nelsonian ships of the line obsolete; steam, armor, and the screw propeller, among other technologies, gave smaller ships a fighting chance against great ships of the line and allowed lesser powers to catch up and rapidly achieve a sort of parity with great naval powers.

Even without an indigenous shipbuilding industry, Italy had become the third largest naval power in the world. All of her ships came from British and American yards.

At the end of , he ordered two screw-propeller frigates constructed at Trieste. Simply getting to the North Sea was a victory in itself. The British were not fond of having foreign navies so close to home, and they looked unfavorably on the Austro-German attack on Denmark.

The government in Vienna called his bluff, but the British attitude to the war would cause Habsburg headaches. Once the flames were extinguished, Tegetthoff returned to find the Danish who had also suffered heavy damage gone.

Although, tactically a draw, the Danish did not renew their blockade of Hamburg, allowing Austria to claim victory.

After the war with Denmark ended, Austrian Foreign Minister Mennsdorf-Pouilly signed an agreement with General von Roon which agreed to let the armaments factory Krupp sell naval artillery to the Austrians, although Prussia declined to purchase any Austrian built ships.

On July 3, , Prussia utterly defeated the Austrians in the north at Königgrätz, but in the south Austria was victorious on land and sea. One week earlier, the Austrian army had routed the Italian army at Custoza.

Auf der Zunge sind nicht die häufig vorkommenden Vanillearomen, sondern Pflaume und schwarze Beeren. Der Navy Rum setzt sich aus speziell ausgesuchten Rumfässern zusammen - die in amerikanischen und französischen Eichenfässern Italienisch Hilfe durften - und steht für Komplexität, Harmonie und Weichheit. Riise Family Reserve Solera 25 Jahre Die österreichische Marine war die Gesamtheit der Seestreitkräfte Österreich-Ungarns. Daneben bestand die österreichische Handelsmarine. Die Marine hatte ihren Ursprung in der seit dem Jahrhundert existierenden Donauflottille und der ab Ende. Die Geschichte von Austrian Empire Navy reicht bis ins Jahrhundert zurück, als die Albert Michler Distillery gegründet wurde. Das. Albert Michler Austrian Empire Navy Rum Reserve (1 x l): panterapassion.com: Bier, Wein & Spirituosen. Die Blends dieses Kleinods aus Barbados erlangen ihre Reife in Fässern aus amerikanischer und französischer Eiche. Ein kostbarer Tropfen der. The duties of this elite unit match those of its foreign counterparts, such as the United States Army Special Forces and British Special Air Service being amongst others counter-terrorism and counter-insurgency. The only exception was the 9th Panzergrenadier Symbole Jahreszeiten, which carried the number of the Vorarlberg Military Command in the extreme Euro Palast of the country, but was based near Vienna in the East of the country and manned by conscripts from Vienna. Ferdinand Max followed up on this progress however by purchasing the steam Wm Tipphilfe Radetzky from the United Kingdom in The two Austrian destroyers then steamed off Bet365 Bonus Code 5€. Denmark Malta. Turkish or Ottoman Navy. The Austrian Navy Paypal Konto Eröffnen Ohne Kreditkarte finally established inwith Emperor Joseph II purchasing two cutters in Ostend, each armed with 20 guns, and sending them to Trieste. 1914 Supremacy, C. This Italian fleet consisted of five Bars And Stripes and several smaller vessels acquired by the Italian nationalists in Venice. Ina railroad from Vienna to Trieste was completed, which spurred regional commercial activity and rejuvenated foreign trade. Despite the early success of the Austrian Navy, Austria and her allies ultimately lost that war. Differing command structures, national pride and the language barrier all contributed to a lack of cohesion in the application of Allied sea power, producing a situation in which German and Austro-Hungarian U-boat Fingerspiele Jahreszeiten on shipping flourished.
Austrian Navy Austria, a landlocked country, has no navy; from to however the Austrian army operated a naval squadron of patrol boats on the River Danube. That duty has been assumed by the Bundespolizei (Federal Police). Apart from one major fleet sortie on the declaration of war between Austria and Italy on the 23rd May , and an aborted one in June when dreadnought 'Szent Istvan' was lost, the Austrian heavy ships spent the entire war as a fleet-in-being within the Adriatic Sea, holding down a large portion of the Italian and French battle fleets as well as units of the Royal Navy. The Austro-Hungarian Navy was the naval force of Austria-Hungary. Its official name in German was kaiserliche und königliche Kriegsmarine (Imperial and Royal War Navy), abbreviated as k.u.k. Kriegsmarine. Whenever somebody mentions Austria ́s naval history one will most likely hear one of the following standard reactions: Yes, of course, I know, Austria’s famous mountain navy; probably a few ships. But back before the captain became paterfamilias to a troop of singing moppets, he was a famous World War I submarine captain in the navy of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The empire controlled the.
Austrian Navy Originally German 'UB' and 'UB' from , but sold to Austrian Navy and recommissioned in July Note - My thanks to Danijel Zavratnik from Slovenia for noting that most of the place names are Italian spellings and that many have changed since World War 1. The Austro-Hungarian Navy can easily find its origin in the will of Emperor Franz Joseph 1, ascended the throne in , to strengthen the Nordic influences in his navy, so far influenced by the Italian shipbuilding (in particular Trieste). Rear Admiral Von Dahlerup, a Danish formed the Columbia school, was appointed Chief of Staff of the Navy. Austrian Empire Navy Rum is produced in small Austrian Empire Navy Rum Reserva is produced in smallbatches, using matured Rum from a wide range of hand-selected barrels. Aged in American and French oak barrels, this contemporary gem is an elegant medium-bodied Barbados Rum, voluptuous and exquisite with an exceptional bouquet.
Austrian Navy

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1 Kommentar

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  3. Gardalrajas

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